Circus-Theater Colosseum

Colosseum = Sverdlov Theater
On the street of the Jizzakh new city (now Bukhoro street), in 1904, a wooden tent-shaped circus “tent” was built according to the project of engineer E.V. Hoffman at the expense of the Tashkent businessman G.M. Tsentsadze. The room of the first (wooden) circus was modest. This prompted the owner to take care of the construction of a more solid building.

In 1912, engineer Dyakov developed a project for a new variety show with a stage and a hall with a diameter of 18.7 fathoms, covered by a metal dome of the Schwedler design. The next year, the Warsaw engineer A.E. Garney designed the building itself in the Art Nouveau style. However, the building erected in 1913 on the site of an old wooden circus under the guidance of a Tashkent engineer G.K. Popova, was simplified compared to the project. Nevertheless, it was possible to build the largest and most spacious spectacular public building in pre-revolutionary Tashkent (accommodating 1,100 spectators). Only the main facade, made in strict classical forms with an explicit expression of the Empire’s techniques, came out on Jizzakh Street. Architects placed a balcony above the entrance, raised above the sidewalk on pylons with Doric columns attached to them.To the left of the main building in a one-story extension was the Teatralny restaurant.

In terms of functional feasibility and design innovation, this concert hall, called the “Coliseum”, clearly testified to the high level of development of technical and architectural thought in Turkestan and became a characteristic landmark of the city of Tashkent.

As the most spacious public building, the Colosseum was constantly used for holding mass meetings, after 1917 – for holding congresses, sessions, many famous statesmen and military figures of the country spoke here.

Almost all the famous artists – guest performers worked within its walls. In 1918, the concert hall was named after Y. Sverdlov and it was here that the history of the Tashkent opera began when the State Opera and Ballet Theater was organized (1918)

Of the most significant events associated with this building, mention should be made of the proclamation in the Coliseum of the formation of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Russian Federation (April 30, 1918 at the V Congress of Soviets of the Turkestan Territory) and the work of the Extraordinary Session of the CEC of the Turkestan ASSR in September 1924, when the decision was made on the national demarcation of Central Asia and the formation of the Uzbek SSR.

—–

Uzbek folk circus

Imagine a large area of ​​spring Tashkent. Bright skies, scarlet tulips on the flat roofs of adobe houses, closely pressed against each other, and in the center of the square there is a light structure made of poplars and ropes cleared of leaves. This dor is the original design for a rope walk. Under the road there are musicians playing karnai – huge long copper pipes, doira- tambourines, of which there are a lot, and the diameters of some not more than twenty centimeters, and others – half a meter, a meter and even a half. The alarming, deafening, poured sounds of the karnays, merging with the fractional sounds of doyras, insistently urge passersby to stop. And not only to listen, but also to see – doyrists, playing an infinite number of rhythms, then whimsical and capriciously changing, then steady, clear, solemn, masterfully juggle with tambourines. Here one of the musicians begins to “play” with two tambourines, then a third appears in his hands – the doirs take off and again fall into dexterous hands, and the rhythms all flow, without interruption for an instant.

But in the middle of the square a gray-haired aksakal, the manager of the festival, comes out and at his signal the sounds of the orchestra stop for a few minutes to flare up again, when a doorway appears high above the heads of the audience, on a thin rope . It begins dor-Uyun – playing on a rope. Dexterity, courage, true sportsmanship are distinguished by the performance of expensive pickups. Maskarabozi – pranksters – begin to talk with him. She seems very laid-back, but entering into Askia – a contest in wit – is obliged to immediately improvise a witty answer, and if Askiyaboz – witty spoke in verse, then in order not to drop his dignity, he must continue the verse …

Dor-uyun is replaced by sim-dor – walking on a wire. It is pulled a little lower than the rope of the dora, but the “game” on it is much more difficult. The artist moves slowly, gracefully balancing, then takes a pose resembling an arabesque, and then freezes, then suddenly starts to dance.

And Askiyaboz enters again – he suddenly throws up a copper plate, he catches it, but does not know what to do with it. Wear on your head, on your foot? Perhaps this is interesting … And now he is already moving, gliding along the wire on a plate. He clearly likes the game. After much persuasion, Askiyaboz gives him another plate, now he is shod and is starting to flaunt his new thing.

Askiyaboz throws him a copper pot. Dorvoz puts a shiny “hat” on his head, but immediately takes it off in a fright: “Oh, I’m afraid the boiler will boil!” “The boiler has a mind, he knows how to walk, only put his feet in it,” the mocker answers him. There is nothing to do – the doorway puts the boiler on its feet, dropping the plates. Indeed, the cauldron begins to “jump”, to the general delight of both the costly delivery, and the Askiyaboz, and the spectators.

The holiday is in full swing, flexible boys run out to the “arena” – muallakchi, besyuyakchi, zangbozi. These are acrobats. At a fast pace, they perform a cascade of complex tricks and stop at trays that are poured to the brim with water, slowly bend “onto the bridge” and for centuries take out small coins thrown to the bottom of the trays.

Acrobats are replaced by nairanboses – illusionists. But they fail to finish their numbers – the center of the square is occupied by dancing and singing walkers – agachoka , jugglers with porcelain plates – chinni-uyunchi , heavy dishes – tagora-uyunchi , huge jugs – kuzavoz-uyunchi , burning torches – otash-uyunchi . It is difficult to determine what underlies the mastery of these original artists: juggling or dancing. And they both masterfully master.

A particularly spectacular number of this extensive program of the national Uzbek circus is dancing with a juggling tray, which is filled with burning coals. Here the dancer put it on his head and spun in place in a complex pirouette, then the tray slowly crawled down his back, a light jump – and the tray again on his head. But Askiyaboz this time intervenes in the “game”, “You play too well with fire, aren’t you a spirit, are you connected with the devil?” “Yes of course!” – answers otash-uyunchi.

“And if you are a spirit, then what do you eat?” ““ Like “what” – with fire, ”the artist replies and, deftly throwing a handful of burning coals in his mouth, he begins to swiftly spin in a circle. This dance is called “charch” – a spinning wheel. It is being performed at such a fast pace that the visible appearance of the dancer is lost, it seems that these are columns of sand twisted by the whirlwind of Kara-Kumov. Just as suddenly, the artist stops and, quite stroking himself, says: “Now I’m full.” “I also want to!” – Askiyaboz says and hands the dancer an empty tray. The actor makes mysterious passes with his hands … and burning coals begin to jump out of his mouth onto a tray.

After the show of trained animals and animals, after the comic scenes of kizikchi – folk artists-improvisers – marshakvozy – inventive fireworks come into action .

But this festival does not end there. A flotilla of light “boats” appears on the square, young men sit in them, lanterns burn on the bow and stern of the boats. The “boats” either sway smoothly on the “waves”, then fall into a “whirlpool”, then get aground … Actually, this is a theatrical dance – “Kema-uyun” (boat game). The dancer attaches a fake, upholstered “boat” to the belt, light silk hides his legs, and it seems that the boat, which the young man rules, singing, really swims …

The Uzbek people greatly appreciate the horse. A horse is a friend of a horse in war and in everyday life. Equestrianism is paycha , horse racing with obstacles, and ulak – horse racing, in which the most skillful one, who managed to carry the carcass of a ram from start to finish, wins. In ancient times, the winner in payche and ulak could count on the most beautiful wife … After all, if you won in payche, then you are brave, strong and smart! And since ancient times, girls love such horsemen. But the real horseman still has to win in the kurash – the struggle. In it, the horse will not help, here only rely on your own strength and endurance.

In the days of New Year’s spring festivals of “Nauruz”, in the days of autumn “spore-bairams” – the celebrations of pomegranates, the festivities of fertility, the wedding days ended with oltyn kabak – a competition of archery. There is a legend that tells that in the early Middle Ages the winner Altyn Kabak became the ruler of the country for one day …

A native of Ferghana, one of Timur’s heirs, the conqueror of India, Bobur, in his memoirs, talks about the wonderful athlete of his time – Islam Varlas. “A simple man,” says Bobur, “knew the matter of falconer well. He could do a lot well. He pulled a bow weighing thirty or forty batmans with such force that he pierced the board through and through. He skipped from one end to the other, took off his bow , aimed at all the gallop, shot and hit the target.He also tied the ring to a rope with a length of kari or one and a half kari, and attached the other end of the rope to a stick and tightened the rope very strongly. Such strange things at n it was a lot …

Another of the incomparable people of that time was Pahlavan-Mohamed Bou-Said, the author continues. – He was an outstanding fighter, and also composed verses and composed sauts and nakshas (instrumental melodies. – Ed.). “

Information has been preserved about the famous trainer of the second half of the 15th century, Bobo-Jamal and “about the amazing tricks of his camel, goat, donkey and birds.” It is known that in ancient times the art of training feline animals was highly developed, for these animals were indispensable attributes of the goddess of fertility, love, marriage and water. On many monuments of material culture, the goddess is depicted next to either a panther or a tiger. Chinese chronicles of the 7th – 8th centuries often mention that local rulers sent a gift to the Chinese emperors along with precious utensils and dancers of the “striped tiger” or “lion-dancer”.

Judging by the various reports that have survived to this day, the “games” on the ropes were a particularly favorite sight. The medieval poet, admiring their art, says: “It was amazing that they walked on the ropes. In amazement, people abandoned their affairs. The end of the rope was so highly strengthened that its top rubbed against the vault of heaven … “.

If you want to get to spring sail and enjoy the sight of a truly national folk circus, you will need to spend many months to gather all the masters in some arena. A few years ago, this could be seen without much effort. And now … folk art of wandering artists is a thing of the past. Many genres of the Uzbek folk circus: colloquial – kizikchiliki, maskeraboza, askiyaboza – the art of ground acrobatics, circus dances, combined with juggling and illusion, the art of animal training and much more – have disappeared, although in cities and villages, on collective farms and theaters you can find magnificent masters who own these genres. The outstanding master of the Uzbek national theater of improvisation, Yusup-Kizik Shakardzhanov, is alive,but he is already well past eighty. An excellent otash-uyun master Raim Allabergenov works in the Urgench Theater, but he no longer plays with “fire”. Masters of ancient, distinctive art pass away and take away their secrets. Essentially, only the art of riders and the art of trucking is preserved and developed in the Uzbek Soviet circus. It is unlikely that anyone in Uzbekistan does not know circus families in which this art is passed on from generation to generation – the Igamberdy Tashkentenbaev family, the Zaripov family, the Khojaev family. But this is not enough. I would like the folk traditions in the Uzbek Soviet circus to be more fully developed, combining with the traditions of the national circus of the fraternal republics, with the traditions of the entire Soviet circus. For thisAn excellent otash-uyun master Raim Allabergenov works in the Urgench Theater, but he no longer plays with “fire”. Masters of ancient, distinctive art pass away and take away their secrets. Essentially, only the art of riders and the art of trucking is preserved and developed in the Uzbek Soviet circus. It is unlikely that anyone in Uzbekistan does not know circus families in which this art is passed on from generation to generation – the Igamberdy Tashkentenbaev family, the Zaripov family, the Khojaev family. But this is not enough. I would like the folk traditions in the Uzbek Soviet circus to be more fully developed, combining with the traditions of the national circus of the fraternal republics, with the traditions of the entire Soviet circus. For thisAn excellent otash-uyun master Raim Allabergenov works in the Urgench Theater, but he no longer plays with “fire”. Masters of ancient, distinctive art pass away and take away their secrets. Essentially, only the art of riders and the art of trucking is preserved and developed in the Uzbek Soviet circus. It is unlikely that anyone in Uzbekistan does not know circus families in which this art is passed on from generation to generation – the Igamberdy Tashkentenbaev family, the Zaripov family, the Khojaev family. But this is not enough. I would like the folk traditions in the Uzbek Soviet circus to be more fully developed, combining with the traditions of the national circus of the fraternal republics, with the traditions of the entire Soviet circus. For thisMasters of ancient, distinctive art pass away and take away their secrets. Essentially, only the art of riders and the art of trucking is preserved and developed in the Uzbek Soviet circus. It is unlikely that anyone in Uzbekistan does not know circus families in which this art is passed on from generation to generation – the Igamberdy Tashkentenbaev family, the Zaripov family, the Khojaev family. But this is not enough. I would like the folk traditions in the Uzbek Soviet circus to be more fully developed, combining with the traditions of the national circus of the fraternal republics, with the traditions of the entire Soviet circus. For thisMasters of ancient, distinctive art pass away and take away their secrets. Essentially, only the art of horse riders and the art of trucking is preserved and developed in the Uzbek Soviet circus. It is unlikely that anyone in Uzbekistan does not know circus families in which this art is passed on from generation to generation – the Igamberdy Tashkentenbaev family, the Zaripov family, the Khojaev family. But this is not enough. I would like the folk traditions in the Uzbek Soviet circus to be more fully developed, combining with the traditions of the national circus of the fraternal republics, with the traditions of the entire Soviet circus. For thisonly the art of riders and the art of trucking is preserved and developed in the Uzbek Soviet circus. It is unlikely that anyone in Uzbekistan does not know circus families in which this art is passed on from generation to generation – the Igamberdy Tashkentenbaev family, the Zaripov family, the Khojaev family. But this is not enough. I would like the folk traditions in the Uzbek Soviet circus to be more fully developed, combining with the traditions of the national circus of the fraternal republics, with the traditions of the entire Soviet circus. For thisonly the art of riders and the art of trucking is preserved and developed in the Uzbek Soviet circus. It is unlikely that anyone in Uzbekistan does not know circus families in which this art is passed on from generation to generation – the Igamberdy Tashkentenbaev family, the Zaripov family, the Khojaev family. But this is not enough. I would like the folk traditions in the Uzbek Soviet circus to be more fully developed, combining with the traditions of the national circus of the fraternal republics, with the traditions of the entire Soviet circus. For thisthat in the Uzbek Soviet circus, folk traditions should be more fully developed, combining with the traditions of the national circus of the fraternal republics, with the traditions of the entire Soviet circus. For thisthat in the Uzbek Soviet circus, folk traditions should be more fully developed, combining with the traditions of the national circus of the fraternal republics, with the traditions of the entire Soviet circus. For this it’s not enough to gather all the masters in Tashkent, create a troupe for a while and demonstrate its art in the next decade. It is necessary to create a school-studio of circus art in Uzbekistan, where from year to year cadres are trained, experimental work is carried out and the experience gained by many generations of talented representatives of folk art of the circus is enriched.

L. AVDEEVA

employee of the Institute of Art Studies of the Academy of Sciences Uz. SSR

Soviet Circus Magazine September 1958

ruscircus.ru

——

The modern circus in Uzbekistan originated over 100 years ago – at the end of the 19th at the beginning of the 20th century, when attractions from Russia and European countries arrived on tour in Turkestan. Semi-stationary big top circuses were built in Tashkent, Samarkand, Andijan, Fergana, Namangan, Urgench and other cities.

Tashkent citizens of the middle and older generations – fans of pop art – must have retained good memories of those times when in the Concert Hall. Y. Sverdlova performed by masters of domestic and foreign pop. However, few people know that here, at the Coliseum circus theater, at the beginning of the century there were not only performances and concerts, but also circus performances.

Circus Theater “Coliseum” (Concert Hall named after Y. Sverdlov)

As you know, the circus theater “Coliseum” was the largest theater building in pre-revolutionary Turkestan. Its owner – G. M. Tsintsadze – arrived in Tashkent from Tiflis in the 90s of the last century, and here, thanks to his enterprise, he soon becomes the owner of two hotels – “Europe” and “Be-lion”.

Being a big fan of theatrical art, Tsintsadze in 1900 raises the question of the need to build a GREAT building for the masses, intended for performances and circus programs. According to his plan, the architectural form of such a theater was to be similar to the ancient Roman theater. However, due to lack of funds, it was only in 1913 that it was possible to complete the construction of the building.

Nevertheless, the circus theater began to function long before the official opening. In its unfinished form, it was not a circus theater, but a semi-stationary circus with an iron dome, intended directly for circus performances. In newspaper advertisements and posters, he was called – “Tsintsadze Circus”.

The first circus performance took place here in 1905 – Nazarov’s troupe performed on its arena. In the same year, the Tashkent public got acquainted with the art of the famous clown trainer V. L. Durov, whose tour aroused great interest.

Along with circus performances, the building was used to show performances and concerts that took place on the stage adjacent to the arena. Beginning in 1910, cinematography sessions were shown at the Tsintsadze circus, in between magicians, ventriloquists, fakirs, jugglers, etc.

The arena, located in the center of the auditorium, was surrounded on three sides by seats for spectators – 15 rows of seats were located in 4 tiers. On one side, a scene adjoined the arena. In those cases when it was used for performances, chairs were also installed in the arena. In total, the circus theater accommodated about 2500 spectators. He had electric lighting.

The opening of the circus theater, called the Colosseum, took place in December 1913. The first season, theater troupes played here. Then the orchestra was converted into an arena, and in November 1914 the first circus performances were held at the Coliseum. The circus entreprise was headed by G. M. Tsintsadze himself. For the premiere, he invited the most popular artists who toured in that period in the Turkestan region.

However, the circus artists did not have to work long on the Coliseum arena – in 1918 the building was nationalized, and since then circus performances have not been held here.

P. TASHKENBAEV, 
Ph.D.

—————-

The first stationary circus was built in Tashkent in 1914 by entrepreneur F.A. Yupyatov.

But this building was destroyed by an earthquake in 1966. In 1920, the Tashkent State Circus (Tashgostsirk) was created as part of the Soyuzgostsirk, which mainly served as a rental platform for touring circus programs. In 1942, an Uzbek circus group was created in Tashkent – the first among national circus groups in the territory of the former USSR. In 1976, the new building of the Uzbek State Circus was built, in which a radical reconstruction was carried out in 1999.

After the collapse of the USSR and the liquidation of the Soyuzgoszirk, the collegium of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Uzbekistan adopted a decree on 12/25/91 to establish the republican association Uzbekgosirk on January 2, 1992 on the basis of the Tashgosirk named after Tashkenbai Igamberdiev and the directorate of the Tashkent groups Circus on the Stage . The republican association “Uzbekgosirc” was entrusted with the task of propaganda of the modern Uzbek circus, which has a long history and rich traditions, the organization of tours of circus artists from the CIS countries and foreign countries on the territory of the republic. Over the years of the existence of the republican association “Uzbek State Circus”, the Uzbek circus has turned from a rental site into a genuine creative laboratory, an arena of searches and experiments. 20 thematic performances were staged,Over 100 new circus acts and 10 major attractions have been prepared. These are “Trained Tigers” by P / R F. Yunusov – the first Uzbek predator tamer, “Acrobats by camels” P / R E. Arzumanova, “Two-tier rope” P / R of Honored Artist N. Aliyeva, “Dzhigits of Uzbekistan” P / R K Karaeva, etc.

The Uzbek circus has become a full member of the world circus community – circus performers have highly flown the flag of Independent Uzbekistan in the arenas of more than thirty countries in Europe, Asia and Africa. Also, the country’s ambassadors took part in prestigious international festivals in France, Germany, Russia, China, the UAE, where they were awarded the highest awards. So in 1996 at the first world festival of circus art in Moscow “Acrobats on Camels” P / R E. Arzumanova was awarded the third place of honor “Bronze Bear”, in 1999 artists of the “Dzhigits of Uzbekistan” P / R K. Karaev in the UAE (g DUBAI) took the second place of honor at the international circus festival. In November 2000, at the 4th International Festival of Circus Arts in China (Wuhan), the artists of the performance “Two-Stage Rope” P / R of Honored Artist N. Aliyeva won second place – “Gilded Crane “, in November 2001, a clown circus group consisting of Abdujabbarova Sh., Sultanova O., Suropova R. at the International Festival of Clown Art in China (TANJIN) was awarded an honorable third place.

Representatives of the oldest circus dynasties, the Tashkenbaevs and Zaripovs, continue their creative activity successfully. The People’s Artist of the USSR and Uzbekistan Hakim Zaripov is preparing new performers for the “Dzhigits of the Solar Uzbekistan” show, and the children’s circus group is led by the Honored Artist of the Republic Karima Zaripova.

It would not be fair not to mention the work of the outstanding leader Eduard Arzumanov, who devoted his whole life to the circus and has done incredibly much for the Uzbek circus.

Adress

10 Bukhara Street
100047 Tashkent
UZBEKISTAN

cirk.uz

Travelers' Map is loading...
If you see this after your page is loaded completely, leafletJS files are missing.